55.) Muir served as the group's president until his death. Encyclopedia.com. Retrieved December 21, 2020 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/science/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/muir-john-1838-1914, Born: April 21, 1838Dunbar, ScotlandDied: December 24, 1914Los Angeles, California Scottish-born American naturalist and explorer. John Muir was born in Dunbar, Scotland, on April 21, 1838. By 1938, the High Trip expeditions had become so large that the Club had to devise plans for those hikers who desired more intimate, small-scale experiences. ." He observed active mountain glaciers, and hypothesized that the slow grinding of ice had carved Yosemite's soaring granite cliffs. Actually he went as far as Cuba. Muir published his first book in 1894, but it was not until the 1901 publication of his book Our National Parks that President Theodore Roosevelt (1858–1919; served 1901–9; see entry) took notice of the conservationist. . His father, Daniel Muir, dictated strict Bible studies for John and his seven siblings as they grew up in Scotland. president’s own conservationist policies.”, “essential characteristic of the science of ecology and the interrelated of all living things”. . A. Knopf, 1945. YOSEMITE NATIONAL PARK, called "the greatest marvel of the continent" by journalist Horace Greeley, was also described by the…, The National Park Service, an agency in the U.S. Department of the Interior , was established by the National Park Service Act of 1916 making it the…, National parks are areas that have been legally set apart by national governments because they have cultural or natural resources which are deemed si…, Park, Linda Sue Encyclopedia.com. In 1880, returning from exploring in Alaska, Muir married Louie Wanda Strentzel. World of Earth Science. The Muirs moved to the small town of Martinez, California (near San Francisco), the year they were married. Edwin Way Teale, The Wilderness World of John Muir (1954), provides an introduction to Muir and a selection of his writings. Muir drew America's attention through a series of articles he published in Century magazine. However, the date of retrieval is often important. John of the Mountain, drawn from Muir's journal of his 1899 Alaskan expedition, appeared in 1938. "John Muir He was particularly fond of Yosemite Valley and his experience as a shepherd helped shape his view on local ranchers that he saw could easily destroy the delicate and pristine beauty of the region through domesticated livestock. When his strict father allowed him time off, Muir and his younger brother liked to explore https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/muir-john-0, "Muir, John the woods and hills. The conservation movement grew out of the idea of how to use water, forests, minerals and animals, fearing that they…show more content…. . If his recollections in The Story of My Boyhood and Youth (1913) can be credited, his father was harsh and tyrannical, enforcing piety and industry by frequent whippings. Wolfe, Linnie Marsh. He ultimately helped preserve ancient landscapes so that future generations could study them and hopefully be inspired to further their own passion in this industry. Louisiana Should Embrace the Winds of Change, Responsibly Disposing of Computer Equipment, Paper Straws and Canvas Bags: The Environmental Impact. ." "Muir, John His wanderlust led him on expeditions around the globe, but California's Sierra Nevadas were his home. The Wild Muir: Twenty-Two of John Muir's Greatest Adventures. ." However, if we look deeper into an environmental scientists’ objective, it’s a matter of conserving our Earth, protecting our ecosystem, and preserving its natural beauty. Muir had been writing a book about Alaska when he died (it was published in 1915), and in his Encyclopedia of World Biography. Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Cattle and sheep were decimating the meadows and forests of the range. After a visit home, Muir walked 1,000 mi (1,609 km) to the Gulf of Mexico , and boarded a ship to Cuba, New York, and finally Panama. Having provided permanently for his wife, two daughters, and himself, he turned his full attention to the study of nature. “naturalist, writer, inventor, and advocate of U.S. forest conservation.”, “The Father of our National Parks,” “Wilderness Prophet,” and “Citizen of the Universe.”, “ecology and humanity’s earth connection.”, “U.S. He fundamentally helped nurture the practice of Environmental Studies, awakened those oblivious about the importance of nature during his time, converted those once afraid of the wilderness, and without a doubt, inspired, and continue to inspire, many scientists, researchers, engineers to pursue their passion and think of innovative approaches to help flourish our overall environment. Since 1983, the John Muir Trust has been guided by Muir's charge to "do something for wilderness and make the mountains glad" (John Muir Trust 2002). When that failed to happen, Muir's theory made even more sense to more people. By 1871, Muir had found living glaciers in the Sierra and had conceived his controversial theory of the glaciation of Yosemite Valley. His advocacy, disseminated through his writings, was the aid to pursue his dream for the environment. The U.S. ." of Wisconsin. Muir was more of an influencer and his preaches, firm beliefs, dedication, and determination helped future scientists, environmentalists, researchers, and leaders understand the value of Earth’s natural beauty. Muir, John. According to the Ecology Hall of Fame, Muir wrote, "These temple destroyers, devotees of ravaging commercialism, seem to have a perfect contempt for Nature, and, instead of lifting their eyes to the God of the mountains, lift them to the Almighty Dollar.". A surge of discussion has been happening in the outdoor industry about John Muir’s complicity in the dispossession of Indigenous communities heavily due to the work that Indigenous Women Hike (IWH) has been doing to encourage folx to “Rethink the Wild.” “Rethink the Wild” is IWH’s t-shirt and awareness campaign. president’s own conservationist policies.” No matter where Muir went or what he was doing, he was a definite believer in spreading his thoughts and ideas of nature, and never once did he not succeed in impacting others. His enduring legacy, however, were his books and essays that continue to inspire new generations of nature lovers and environmental activists. Smart Meters: An Advance in Technology or Travesty? To lessen her husband's responsibilities, Louie sold some of the fruit ranch. . Park, Linda Sue Losing the battle for Hetch-Hetchy was one of Muir's biggest regrets. It was his second trip, his first one having been in 1879 and resulting in his discovery of Glacier Bay. 21 April 1838–d. "John Muir." Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA). Although his grades were admirable, Muir's interests lay elsewhere, and he left college after three years to travel through the northern United States and into Canada. © 2019 Encyclopedia.com | All rights reserved. Encyclopedia of World Biography. Muir's articles in the Century Magazine gained him the attention and friendship of its like-minded editor, Robert Underwood Johnson. The Wilderness World of John Muir. The battle was long and intense, but in the end, Muir and his fellow conservationists lost. John Muir was a conservationist at a time when the idea of conserving natural resources was still in its infancy. The passage of a law in 1890 making that happen owed much to Muir's influence. He also went on expeditions to Europe, Asia, and Australia. He created Yosemite National Park and was involved in the creation of other national parks, like Mount Rainier, Sequoia, the Petrified Forest, and the Grand Canyon. New York: Twayne Publishers, 1965. He also ran a sawmill at the base of Yosemite Falls. All of which were ideas, adamantly advocated by famous conservationist, John Muir. These jobs gave him the chance to study the nature surrounding him. Reprint, Washington, DC: Ross and Perry, 2001. The Mountains of California (1893), Our National Parks (1901), and his many articles in popular magazines greatly advanced the conservation movement, as did his creation in 1892 of the Sierra Club, an organization dedicated to preserving wild lands such as Yosemite. Our National Parks. As long as I live, … John Muir did not begin life on this track. Edited by Chris Highland. His most popular book, Stickeen, is an account of a summer spent exploring Alaska's glaciers with a little black dog. In 1849 the Muir family moved to America where John’s father pursued farming in doing so pulled John and his brother out of school to help keep up with the farm. There he received his first public recognition in the form of a Wisconsin State Journal article describing his prize-winning whittled clocks. Muir recalled in The Story of My Boyhood and Youth (1913) that his father was religious and extremely strict, keeping his children in line with frequent whippings. John Muir fundamentally helped shape the idea of conserving our environment. Teale, Edwin Way. He would spend the next few years writing and publishing essays about his observations in Yosemite. In 1867 he made the career decision he never regretted: to give up his own inventions "to study the inventions of God." Muir’s reputation for exploration, glaciation, and environmental studies began to be well known throughout the country. They would eventually have two daughters. In 1861 Muir entered the University of Wisconsin to study science. Muir began a campaign to ensure that Yosemite received the same degree of protection as Yellowstone National Park (the world’s first) had obtained in 1872. Washington, DC: National Geographic Society, 2000. In his last years, Muir turned his considerable energy to the preservation of wild lands. 21 Dec. 2020 . An earthquake in the valley in 1872 caused many people to fear the valley Muir spent his first summer as a shepherd in what would become Yosemite National Park in 1890. Born April 26, 1822, in Hartford, CT; died, August 28, 1903, in Waverly, MA; married, 1859; wife's name, Mary; children: John C., Frederick…, Comprising 2.2 million acres of northwest Wyoming, with slight incursions into Montana and Idaho, Yellowstone is the oldest national park in the Unit…, http://www.sierraclub.org/john_muir_exhibit/. Muir eventually memorized three-quarters of the Old Testament and all of the New Testament. He supported himself with odd jobs along the way. John Muir: Nature's Visionary. Often said to be the founder of the modern American environmental movement, John Muir's wild enthusiasm for nature led him to wander across North America. Rather than spending his time traveling the world, Muir transitioned to publishing reports and poems, combining his experience and affection towards “ecology and humanity’s earth connection.” His printed articles greatly praised the natural world and published an essay promoting the establishment of Yosemite National Park, which was later, created in 1890. Having thus provided permanently for his wife, two daughters, and himself, he turned his full attention to the study of nature. The mansion and the portion of the ranch acreage the Muirs kept is the focal point of the John Muir National Historic Site, a branch of the National Park Service. John Muir in the New World is a co-production of Global Village Media and THIRTEEN’s American Masters for WNET. In 1890, the family moved to a 14-room Victorian mansion. . Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. Reprint, Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1978. Our John Muir quotes collection speaks to his love of nature and the environment. John Muir was a man who lived not just to exist but to serve a purpose. Muir's wife died in 1905. In 1881, after another trip to Alaska, he settled on a fruit ranch near Martinez, Calif. On all of his explorations he kept a journal of scientific and personal observations and also pencil drawings. The Mountains of California (1893), Our National Parks (1901), and his many articles in popular magazines greatly advanced the conservation movement. On December 5, 1871, Muir published his first essay, for which he was paid the then-handsome sum of $200. In 1861 Muir entered the University of Wisconsin to study science. In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. In 1849 the Muirs moved to America, establishing a homestead near Portage, Wis. He died in Los Angeles on Dec. 24, 1914. 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