[27], Crest: Out of a ducal coronet 2 pennants flying, the dexter Or, the sinister Sable, Supporters: Two leopards guardant Proper, Motto: (Italian), Fatti maschii, parole femine, meaning, "Manly deeds, womanly words.". Before settlement began, … At the time, his father was under pressure for conformity, and all ten children were baptised in the Church of England.[4]. Bishop O'Gorman briefly recites the careers of George and Cecil Calvert, Lords Baltimore, of whom the first undertook to found a colony, which he called Avalon, in commemoration of the tradition that it was at a place of that name that Christianity was first preached in England, on the south-eastern peninsula of Newfouudland, which locality proved … This land was not signed over until 5-weeks after his death. Although, in 1661, he gained official recognition of the old Charter of Avalon, he never attempted to retake the Avalon colony. Kelly, Martin. His mother Anne Mynne (or Mayne) died the following year. Thus, in American history, Lord Baltimore usually refers to Cecil Calvert. [8] William Laud, Archbishop of Canterbury, and his Star Chamber campaigned against both Puritans and Catholics. He died, however, on 15/25 April 1632, before his rights to concession could be … Cecil Calvert was born on 8 August 1605 in Kent, England, to George Calvert, who was later created, in 1625, The 1st Baron Baltimore, and Anne Mynne (or Mayne). Lord Baltimore's dream of founding a colony in America did not fade with his return to England. Cecil was born in 1605 and died in 1675. A 1908 statue of Cecil, Lord Baltimore, for which Francis X. Bushman served as sculptor's model,[26] stands on the steps at the west entrance of the Circuit Courthouse of Baltimore City (built 1896–1900 – renamed the Clarence M. Mitchell, Jr. Cecil's father, George Calvert, had received a royal charter for the land from King Charles I. Religious toleration became an important issue for the colony. Maryland became a haven for Catholics in the New World, particularly important at a time of religious persecution in England. Harford County is named for Henry Harford, the illegitimate son of The 6th Baron Baltimore. The old Lord Baltimore's charter was given to the second Lord Baltimore, Cecil Calvert. https://www.thoughtco.com/lord-baltimore-104356 (accessed February 5, 2021). (2020, August 27). Established in 1621 by Sir George Calvert (the First Lord Baltimore), the Colony of Avalon is widely recognized as the best preserved early English colonial site in North America. However, Lord Baltimore could not isolate his colony from the democratic nature of the surrounding colonies and representative ideas did seep into Maryland over the years. The later reunification of the two squares of the colonial seal and proprietary family's coat-of-arms in the increased use of a "Maryland Flag" in the late 19th and early 20th centuries symbolised the post-war reconciliation of the two sides of the bitterly divided border state. He was known as the second Baron Baltimore. The title became extinct in 1771 after the death of the 6th Baron. Maryland, in fact, became known as a haven for Roman Catholics in the New World. [8], While the expedition was being prepared, Baltimore was busy in England defending the 1632 Charter from former members of the Virginia Company. What was the colony of Maryland known for? Numerous place names honour the Barons Baltimore, including the counties of Baltimore, Calvert, Cecil, Charles, and Frederick. Lord Baltimore, also known as George Calvert, 1st Baron of Baltimore, was interested in the English colonization of the New World to establish a refuge for England's Catholic population. Leonard Calvert, the second son, was appointed governor of the new colony; and in November, 1633, he sailed with about three hundred people for America. Maryland was founded as a so-called proprietary colony, owned by Lord Baltimore. For more information see: State of Maryland (Chapter 48, Acts of 1904, effective 9 March 1904), Archives of Maryland (Biographical Series) Cecilius Calvert, 2nd Lord Baltimore (1605–1675), English and Catholic: the Lords Baltimore in the Seventeenth Century, St Giles-in-the-Fields Church Website Section: Global Connections, Md. Calvert, however, became discouraged with the colony's cold climate and … ThoughtCo. The seal features the Calvert arms and motto, which is still used in the Government of Maryland. Cecil, 2nd Lord Baltimore, died in Middlesex, England, on 30 November 1675. (1605-1675) Cecil Calvert was still a young man of 26 years when his father Sir George Calvert, Lord Baltimore, died. Other Maryland cities and counties honor Lord Baltimore by naming themselves after him. For every five men transported, 1,000 acres was granted. Although Maryland was an early pioneer of religious toleration in the English colonies, religious dissent among Anglicans, Puritans, Catholics, and Quakers was common in the early … When Cecil, second Lord Baltimore, founded the colony of Maryland, he expanded on his father's ideas of freedom of religion and separation of church and state. He never travelled to Maryland. On 8 August 1633, the new Lord Baltimore, as Cecil was now, was admitted to Gray's Inn as a barrister.[3]. When he came to Newfoundland in 1627he brought with him two Roman Catholic priests, one of whom remained at the Colony of Avalon through 1629. They were Cecil, second Lord Baltimore (1605?–1675) and … The first colonists to Maryland arrive at St. Clements Island on Marylands western shore and found the settlement of St. Marys. George Calvert, the first Lord Baltimore (1580?–1632), planned the colony but did not live to see it formed. When the Crown realised that settlers from Virginia had already crossed the bay to begin settling the southern tip of their eastern shore, the grant was revised to include the eastern shore only as far south as a line drawn east from the mouth of the Potomac River (including the future State of Delaware). Subsequently, the charter and land settlement was left to his son, Cecil Calvert. Each 1,000 acres would form a manor. Cecil governed Maryland for 42 years. As a result, the province was divided into proprietary manors. This region would later become the state of ​Maryland. Upon George Calvert’s death in 1632, Cecilius inherited the family title and also became proprietor of the newly chartered Roman Catholic colony of … Although precluded by his birth status from inheriting the peerage, he inherited the Lord Proprietorship, only to lose it later during the American Revolution. Baron Baltimore or Lord Baltimore, of Baltimore Manor in County Longford, was a title in the Peerage of Ireland. Calvert was instrumental in the British settlement of Avalon, located off of the coast of Canada's Newfoundland. In 1632, King Charles I of England granted a charter to George Calvert, the first Lord Baltimore, yielding him proprietary rights to a region east of the Potomac River in exchange for a share of the income derived from the land. In 1649, Maryland passed the Maryland Toleration Act, also known as the "Act Concerning Religion." They formed the colony of Maryland, which later figured prominently in the struggle for political independence. The black and gold quarters were the arms of the Calverts themselves, while the red and silver were for the Crosslands, the family of the 1st Baron's mother, Alice. [U.S.]), first governor of Maryland colony.. Leonard Calvert was the younger brother of Cecilius Calvert and the son of George Calvert, 1st Lord Baltimore. In 1633, before the first colonists departed England, Lord Baltimore published a document, called Conditions of Plantation, which used a system called head rights for the purposes of populating his colony. The new colony was named after Henrietta Maria, the wife of the king. The following Facts about Lord Baltimore will talk about the first Proprietor and Proprietary Governor of Maryland Province. The title was first created for Sir George Calvert in 1624. The Lords Baltimore: Establishing Religious Freedom. The principles upon which Lord Baltimore launched his brief Colony of Avalon have considerable importance, beyond the scale of the settlement itself. They were chased and forced to return by the British Royal Navy so that the settlers would take an oath of allegiance to the King as required by law. The 1st Baron Baltimore administered the colony between 1629 and 1632, when he left for the Colony of Virginia and later visited the northern reaches along the Chesapeake Bay (which included the future Maryland). In 1628, Cecil accompanied his father, Lord Baltimore, along with most of his siblings and his stepmother, to the new Colony of Newfoundland. 2nd and 3rd Quarterly Argent and Gules over all a cross bottony counterchanged (Crosslands). Lord Baltimore sent detailed instructions for the governance of the colony. Kelly, Martin. [8] Rather than going to the colony himself, Baltimore stayed behind in England to deal with the political threat and sent his next younger brother Leonard in his stead. He had previously appointed a representative to act on his behalf, this man was Captain Wynne. "The Lords Baltimore: Establishing Religious Freedom." Its first settlement and capital was St. Mary's City, in the southern end of St. Mary's County, which is a peninsula in the Chesapeake Bay and is also bordered by four tidal rivers. His sons carried on his work. Cecil wanted this law to also protect Catholic settlers and others who did not conform to the established state Church of England. Baltimore is an Anglicization of the Irish phrase "baile an thí mhóir e," which means "town of the big house." While initially for commercial incentives, George later realized colonies in the New World could become a refuge for English Catholics and a place for religious freedom in general. As an English Roman Catholic, he continued the legacy of his father by promoting religious tolerance in the colony. [13] With these last instructions, the expedition crossed the Atlantic and sailed through Cape Charles (headland) and Cape Henry into the large harbour and lower bay called Hampton Roads at the entrance to the Chesapeake Bay and the mouth of the James River. Lord Baltimore governed Maryland for forty-two years. Colonial Maryland was a southern colony. Lord Baltimore, as Cecil now was, received a Charter from King Charles I for the new colony of Maryland, to be named for the Queen Consort, Henrietta Maria (wife of King Charles I). [13] He also emphasised the importance of religious toleration among the colonists, who numbered nearly equally Catholic and Protestant. The title became extinct in 1771 after the death of the 6th Baron. Several versions to represent the Colony and the State had been used since the grant to the Second Lord Baltimore. [6] In questions of interpretation of rights, the Charter would be interpreted in favour of the proprietor. After meeting with the Virginians at their colony and capital of Jamestown, they continued up the Bay to the Potomac River, then further upstream and landed on 25 March 1634 at Blakistone Island (later called St. Clement's Island). Parish records state that he is buried at St. Giles-in-the-Fields Church, London, UK,[19] though the exact location of his grave is unknown. This charter would be heavily contested by the 2nd Lord Baltimore's heirs and the Penn family in the Penn–Calvert Boundary Dispute. The colony of Maryland was founded and long governed by an English family. Kelly, Martin. [1] He was succeeded by his son and heir, Charles. Claiborne, the trader on Kent Island, resisted the new settlement and conducted some naval skirmishes against it.[15]. Early in 1634 the colonists entered Chesapeake Bay and sailed to the mouth of the Potomac. This was a severe stigma for a nobleman in 17th century England, where Roman Catholics were considered enemies of the crown and traitors to their country. Baltimore is an Anglicization of the Irish phrase "baile an thí mhóir e," which means "town of the big house." [14] From England, Baltimore tried to manage the political relations with the Crown and other parts of government. During his long tenure, he governed through deputies: the first was his younger brother Leonard Calvert (1606–1647),[16] and the last was his only son Charles. They then sailed in October 1632 for the Isle of Wight to pick up more settlers. Calvert entered Trinity College at the University of Oxford in 1621. Frederick, 6th and last Baron Baltimore, (1731–1771) [12], Baltimore sent detailed instructions for the governance of the colony. Information and Facts with the Maryland Colony Fact File Fast facts and interesting … Baron, or Lord, Baltimore is a now extinct title of nobility in the Peerage of Ireland. [11] They departed from Gravesend in Kent with 128 settlers on board. [clarification needed], He married The Hon. Cecil, Lord Baltimore, established and managed the Province of Maryland from his home, Kiplin Hall, in North Yorkshire, England. On this day in 1634, the first immigrant arrived in the British colony at Maryland, which later formed the core of the U.S. state of the same name. [8] In 1629, King Charles I had dissolved Parliament and governed for the next eleven years without consultation from any representative body. It also flew 25 October 1888, at Gettysburg Battlefield for ceremonies dedicating monuments to the Maryland regiments of the Army of the Potomac and of the Confederate States Army. Lived: 1605-1675 Cecil Calvert, known as Lord Baltimore, was founder of the colony of Maryland, which became a haven for repressed English Catholics. However, genealogists for Kiplin Hall state, "A number of the early Calverts were buried at St Giles in the Fields, Charing Cross Road, London. The coat was the inspiration for the naming of the Baltimore oriole bird, whose orange and black feathers resembled Lord Baltimore's coat of arms. The original grant would have included the western shore of the Chesapeake Bay as far south as the Potomac River and the entirety of the eastern shore (future "Delmarva" peninsula). Courthouse in the 1980s) facing Saint Paul Street and a small Court Plaza with a fountain. Cecil Calvert, 2nd Lord of Baltimore, founded Maryland in 1632. [3] He was the first of several sons of the couple. The Calvert family was Roman Catholic, a religion which most inhabitants of the New World and followers of the Church of England were prejudiced against. Baron, or Lord, Baltimore is a now extinct title of nobility in the Peerage of Ireland. memorial to Calvert in England fulfills request made 35 years ago, Burial of the plague dead in early modern London, State to mark 362nd birthday at statue steeped in local lore Lord Baltimore's likeness based on Hollywood actor, George Calvert and Cecilius Calvert: Barons Baltimore of Baltimore, English and Catholic: The Lords Baltimore in the 17th Century, Lieutenant-Governors and Governors of Newfoundland, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Cecil_Calvert,_2nd_Baron_Baltimore&oldid=994333917, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from October 2020, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, On the Avalon Peninsula in Newfoundland is the settlement of. Quarterly, 1st and 4th Paly of six Or and Sable a bend counterchanged (Calvert). The The Flag of Maryland uses the arms of the 2nd Baron with the Calvert (father's family) black and gold paly (6 vertical bars), with a bend dexter counterchanged, and the Crossland (mother's family) red and white bottony (tre-foiled) counterchanged cross. Your students will work in small groups of three to create a visual that portrays the characteristics of Maryland Colony. This was the first continuous Roman Catholic ministry in British North America. The Province of Maryland was an English and later British colony in North America that existed from 1632 until 1776, when it joined the other twelve of the Thirteen Colonies in rebellion against Great Britain and became the U.S. state of Maryland. To expand on what he already had, George asked the son of James I, Charles I, for a royal charter to settle the land north of Virginia. Home About Contact Establishment Lord Baltimore Conversion to Catholicism Population Growth of Maryland Languages in Maryalnd Jobs in Maryland Famous People Notable Events of the Maryland Colony Maryland Colony Map Climate and Landscape of Maryland Lord Baltimore By the birth name of George Calvert, Baltimore had always envisioned … There they erected a cross and celebrated their first Mass with Father White. Maryland is particularly interesting … The Calvert family sought enactment of the law to protect Catholic settlers and Nonconformist Protestants who did not conform to the established Church of England. It is called Maryland, or "Mary's land," after Henrietta Maria, the wife of the king at that time. After the death of the Baltimore Orioles baseball team interpreted in favour of the Americas Baltimore. February 5, 2021 ) Maryland day '' ( lord baltimore colony March ) ceremonies continue. 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